Topic A: The Situation in Mexico
The government of Mexico under President Enrique Peña Nieto (2012-2018) and the government's security forces have been accused of committing various human rights violations, which all fall under the general category of crimes against humanity, including but not limited to “extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearances, and torture.” In addition, the new Mexican criminal justice system that has been implemented since 2016 has become an apparent continuation of the problems of the old system. For instance, there have been “violations of the presumption of innocence and the use of evidence collected in violation of human rights and other illicit evidence” under the new system even though it was created in an attempt to bring fair and just decisions back to the justice system. Throughout the course of the term, there have been several allegations of human rights violations, such as the harassment and murder of various journalists and activists and violence against women and young girls. This situation is being referred to the ICC to determine if charges for crimes under the ICC’s jurisdiction should be filed against anyone in the government of Mexico.
Topic B: The Situation in Myanmar
Since 2017, Myanmar has been under the control of the democratically elected civilian government led by the National League for Democracy (NLD). However, the country’s transition to democracy has caused a humanitarian crisis. Starting in August 2017, the Burmese military has launched an alleged ethnic cleansing campaign against the Rohingya Muslim population in the Rakhine State. Mass killings, sexual violence, arson, and other abuses have been committed by security forces to forcefully remove the Rohingya. According to Article 7 of the Roman Statute, the forced transfer or deportation of a population is a crime against humanity. In order to escape the violence and abuses, more than 650,000 Rohingya have fled from Myanmar to Bangladesh. The Burmese government has claimed that the Rohingya pose a national security threat because some Rohingya Muslims are involved in terrorist activities. This issue has not been resolved by the government because the problems stem from ethnic conflict in Myanmar. The Rohingya live in Myanmar territory but are not considered to be nationals of Myanmar. As a result, many Rohingya have had to endure oppressive and discriminatory actions from the government and other non-Muslim ethnic groups.