Topic A: The Situation in Myanmar
Pressure from the National League for Democracy (NLD) party urged the military-led government of Myanmar to create a fair constitution to allow for democratic rule. With the election of Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, those dreams of reform were achieved in 2011, leading unprecedented political freedoms for the people. However, underneath this success, disturbing truths and malpractices towards the Rohingya ethnic group in the Rakhine state went unnoticed by the international community. The Rohingya minority has faced systematic discrimination and even targeted acts of violence, which have grown in frequency and severity over the past few years. Discriminatory actions from the Burmese state resulted in discontent among the Rohingya, and, in October 2016, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) attacked the Border Guard Police garrisons in the northern Rakhine state. This attack enflamed the conflict, arming and galvanizing both sides until August 2017, when ARSA launched an attack in the Rakhine state. The government responded with brutal force, pillaging villages that participated in the attacks, killing 371 attackers. The crisis pushed over 80% of the Rohingya population outside of Myanmar in the fastest refugee exodus in modern history. It is essential that the Security Council address this topic and bring the atrocities being committed into the eyes of the international community.
Topic B: The Situation in the Central African Republic
Following its independence from France on 12 July 1960, the Central African Republic (CAR) was submerged into a series of coups, resulting in continuous political instability. The conflicts stem from religious tensions, which have over time morphed into serious ethnic tensions. Since the current phase of the conflict began in 2013, it has been estimated that 3,000-6,000 people have been killed due to increased violence between the various militant groups. While the UN has attempted to establish its presence in the region with peacekeepers, the mission has been embroiled in sexual violence and abuse allegations, officially ending the presence of French forces within the region. The CAR is currently dealing with some of the most serious cases of human flight, economic downturn, and ethnic tensions in the world. Ranking as the 5th most fragile state on the planet, these tensions are difficult to address due to the corruption of the country’s government and size of the region. Warlords in the area have torn the country apart and often recruit the youth to conduct raids, killings, and kidnappings. The CAR is one of the most natural resource rich countries in the world and has the potential to be economically prosperous, but many would rather exploit that potential rather than aid the state and its people. UN peacekeeping and humanitarian aid has been met with controversy and criticism, and protests in the country are frequent; the Security Council has many substantial issues to consider with this topic.